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Bill Proposal


As part of Congressman Lieu's Youth Advisory Council, I have gained the opportunity to write a bill proposal about a topic that I care about. After listening to the Daily by the New York Times episode titled "The Writer's Revolt Against A.I. Companies", I decided to write my bill about the negative impact AI technologies have on creators. The purpose of my bill, the Artificial Intelligence Content Disclosure Act, is to institute guidelines for disclosing the use of artificial intelligence generated content in creative works, informing consumers of possible bias and inaccurate information.


After finishing my proposal, the Council voted on all the bill proposals and decided that mine was one of the 3 that should be further developed. I worked with Congressman Lieu's legal team to make sure that it was feasible and constitutional, and on adjusting the wording of the bill. At the end of the year, my bill was the only one that could reasonably be introduced in the House of Representatives, and the Congressman worked to get my bill introduced.


Here is the contents of my proposal:

DECISION MEMORANDUM


To: Congressman Ted Lieu
From: Youth Advisory Council
RE: Artificial Intelligence Content Disclosure Act
Date: 4/19/23

Bill Summary and Specifics
The purpose of the Artificial Intelligence Content Disclosure Act is to institute guidelines for disclosing the use of artificial intelligence (AI) generated content in creative works, informing consumers of possible bias and inaccurate information. Creative works can be defined as anything requiring creative effort, which includes but is not limited to films, articles, stories, music, and artwork. This bill will require all publishers of creative works to clearly disclose the use of artificial intelligence in their work. Specifically, these requirements would include:
  1. Prominently displayed disclosure of AI usage

  2. Header or footer of written works

  3. Overlay on digital content

  4. Credits in films, videos, and other visual works

  5. Labels on physical artworks

  6. Information about the specific AI model used

  7. Information, if possible, about any possible biases the model contains


In order to enforce this act, fines will be issued to any persons or entities that fail to comply with the requirements.

Background
In recent years, the usage of AI technology has increased. Experts project that the artificial intelligence market is expected to grow 38.1% between 2022 and 2030 and that it will reach 1,811.8 billion USD by 2030 (Precedence Research, 2022). With the rapid pace that technology is increasing, the use of AI has become a popular method to create works of art, writing, and films. Although AI has its benefits, it may create an undisclosed source of bias, particularly in articles and other written materials. AI is not perfect, as it may contain errors and misleading information. For example, it may draw from opinions and create what looks like a fact-intensive article. Additionally, AI-generated artwork has received a negative response from the art community (Shaffi, 2023). Many believe using AI-generated work as a replacement for creative work diminishes the need for creation by people. This also would result in fewer jobs and opportunities for artists.

Because the topic of artificial intelligence is a newer concept, there are very few bills pertaining to this topic. The other introduced and passed bills relate to artificial intelligence in areas like the Department of Defense and prescribing medication. However, no introduced bills exist relating to the use of artificial intelligence in creative works.

Support
A large range of people would support this bill, from regular readers to artists and ethicists. Consumers of literature would appreciate a disclosure on the use of AI so they can be aware of possible bias and false information. Artists spend considerable amounts of time and effort to produce creative work, and AI-generated artwork has recently angered many people in the art community. In addition, many people believe that claiming AI work as your own is unethical and that disclosing this would make for better ethical considerations. The law is often lacking behind technological developments, which can result in negative impacts on consumers and content creators.

Opposition
People who are advocates for AI technology might oppose this bill, as regulation on AI at this point may hamper the advancement of technology. However, my bill would not directly prevent the advancement of AI technology, as it is simply requiring disclosure about its use. In addition, the disclosure of AI content could have a negative effect on the consumer’s perception of the creative work as shown in a recent study (Raj et al., 2023).

Member/Committee Dynamics
Because AI technology is a recent development, few bills exist directly related to AI technology, and there are no bills referring to AI content for creative works. Below are a few bills that relate to AI technology and transparency.

S.5339 Platform Accountability and Transparency Act
The Platform Accountability and Transparency Act has been introduced in the Senate. The purpose of this act is to support research about the impact of digital communication platforms on society by providing privacy-protected, secure pathways for independent research on data held by large internet companies.

H.R.5921 and S.2024 Filter Bubble Transparency Act
The Filter Bubble Transparency Act has been introduced in the House and the Senate. This bill establishes requirements for large online platforms that use algorithms applying artificial intelligence or machine learning to user-specific data to determine the manner in which content is displayed to users.

S.2904 Department of Defense Artificial Intelligence Metrics Act of 2021
The Department of Defense Artificial Intelligence Metrics Act of 2021 has been introduced in the Senate. This Act establishes performance objectives and accompanying metrics for the incorporation of artificial intelligence and digital readiness into Department of Defense platforms, processes, and operations.

H.R.7296 Government Ownership and Oversight of Data in Artificial Intelligence Act of 2022 or the GOOD AI Act of 2022
The Government Ownership and Oversight of Data in Artificial Intelligence Act of 2022 or the GOOD AI Act of 2022 has been introduced in the House. This Act incorporates specific considerations and principles, and the input of specified individuals and entities, in developing an update of guidance for federal agency use of artificial intelligence.

H.R.3723 Consumer Safety Technology Act
The  Consumer Safety Technology Act was passed in the House and received support from 10 cosponsors. This bill requires various agencies to explore the use of emerging technologies in the context of consumer products and safety.

Below is a list of possible co-sponsors of the Artificial Intelligence Content Disclosure Act. These Representatives have supported bills previously related to artificial intelligence and transparency.


Bipartisan Support
To demonstrate that this bill would get support from both parties, one example would be Representative Ken Buck [R-CO-4]. He introduced the Filter Bubble Transparency Act in the House. There are also four Republican co-sponsors of the Consumer Safety Technology Act that worked with Rep. Jerry McNerney [D-CA-9] on investigating emerging technologies. From the list of possible co-sponsors, there are roughly an equal number of Democrat and Republican representatives, supporting the idea that this bill would be bipartisan if introduced in the House.

Outstanding Question
Will you introduce/sponsor the Artificial Intelligence Content Disclosure Act?

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